【New Song】VISIBLE 【Guest: The Snowman】 Songwriting Studio Gooda! #Snowman #NewSong #VISIBLE

【New Song】VISIBLE 【Guest: The Snowman】 Songwriting Studio Gooda! #Snowman #NewSong #VISIBLE
Everything returns to the universe.
Truth, love and happiness will become more visible as you approach the edge of death.
There is something which disappears when it is exposed to flames of passion.
You Tubehttps://youtu.be/Trk_bGf5CqY

【新曲】【New Song】VISIBLE 【ゲスト:雪だるま】【Guest: The Snowman】 Songwriting Studio Gooda! #雪だるま #Snowman

28 The Parallel Universe #ParallelUniverse

28 The Parallel Universe #ParallelUniverse 

28-1  Multiverse[1]
28-1-1 Superstring theory and Brane cosmology
○In superstring theory we have 10-dimensional spacetime. (Dimensions that exceeds the 4-dimension are extra dimensions)
○Superstring theory suggests that the Big Bang there was many times. In other words, the universe is the multi instead of one, so that there are parallel universe.
○In the parallel universe, the laws of physics are different, but superstring theory's seems applicable.
○Since all particles except graviton which is a closed string can not be separated from braneworld, it is not possible to replace the substances. [2]
○Graviton is to travel the extra dimensions, so parallel universe(braneworld) each other can communicate using a gravity wave. [2]
○In this theory, it has assumed the collision of braneworlds and anti-braneworlds . [2]

○Black hole rotating at high speed collapses in a ring shape. The middle of the ring is likely to be the gateway to the parallel universe.[3]

28-1-2 Inflation theory and multiple occurrence of universe (multi-production of universe) [2] [4]
・1982 Katsuhiko Sato other recommendations 
○Many mini-universe are produced from a unitary universe.
○Mini-universe are completely detached from its parent universe.
○To make the child the universe there is a need to take inflation artificially.
○It is made possible by making a large area of highly vacuum energy in the universe.
○However, there is a need to pull heat well.
○Since vacuum energy remains slightly in the current universe, it can be expected that multi-universe is born naturally when vacuum energy undergoes a phase transition.

28-1-3 Real universe and Imaginary universe:Structure of the universe☆(2015)
☆If the universe (the Real universe) including the Milky Way galaxy was born from a quantum fluctuation, the universe (the Imaginary universe) including quantum fluctuations is assumed on the outside.
☆In the Imaginary universe it can be estimated to exist other universe(Parallel universe) born from quantum fluctuations.

☆From the birth of the Real universe to Big Bang 
• If the quantum fluctuation does not exceed the threshold, the resulting pair of substance and antimatter within the fluctuation disappears. = The Real universe is not born.
• When the quantum fluctuation exceeds a threshold value, the symmetry of matter and anti-matter brakes, and antimatter is to rapidly expand the space-time after 1e-36 seconds. ( The size of the Real universe (1e-27m) is much smaller than atom (1e-10m) ⇒3 millimeters (1e-3m): The Inflation: inflation rate is 60-fold of light speed.)
(In the reverse case, the Real universe is not born because space-time collapses.)
- Immediately after that, (1e-36 seconds after → 1e-32 seconds after) substance of high temperature causes the Big Bang.
(The size of the Real universe : 3 mm (1e-3m) ⇒10cm (1e-1m))

☆The structure of the Real universe
・Since the outside of the Real universe is made up of antimatter, and it is also the same as the outside of parallel universe, they repel each other.

☆Future of the Real universe
- The Real universe will evaporate at the end of continuing expansion. = Disappearance of the result of a large fluctuation that occurred in the Imaginary universe
• Before evaporation, the outer shell of antimatter in the Real universe will become brittle, and if it conflicts with other parallel universe, both universe will collapse.
・That is, if the matter that was scattered by the collision of the other two parallel universes collides with the outer shell of the Real universe, we might be able to measure it in quantum.

28-2 Multiverse and Anthropic principle [7] 
・In most multiverse, human beings are not born.
・For example・・・
・・・Even if just a little different from the electromagnetic force and the strong force of the four forces of nature, there is no fact that carbon is synthesized in the interior of the star.
・・・In the four-dimensional universe, because gravity and electromagnetic force is inversely proportional to the cube of the distance, the structure of galaxies and planetary systems or the structure of the atom becomes unstable.

・In other words・・・
・This universe is beautifully designed as if it was trying to present human. : Anthropic principle

28-3 Communication between the parallel universes 
○In M-theory, it has to be capable of interacting with other universe through gravity. [1] [2]

28-4 Observation
○At NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and ESA plans to observe the gravity of parallel universe using Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), in 2035. [6]

1.Space.com/”5 Reasons We May Live in a Multiverse”20121207
2.「気が遠くなる未来の宇宙のはなし(The story of the future of the universe mind-boggling)」Ktsuhiko Sato(2013)
3.Michio Kaku / New York incandescent classroom " amazing prophecy of "Theory of Everything;TOE"" 20150403
4.Multi-production of universes by first-order phase transition of a vacuum
5. Anthropic principle - Wikipedia
6. LISA Project Office

28 並行宇宙 #並行宇宙 #宇宙

28 並行宇宙 #並行宇宙 #宇宙

28-1 多元宇宙(マルチバース)[1][2]
28-1-1 超弦理論とブレーン(薄膜)宇宙モデル [3]


28-1-2 インフレーション理論と宇宙の多重発生(マルチプロダクション)[3] [5][6]
・1982年 佐藤勝彦ほかの提言

28-1-3 実宇宙と虚宇宙:宇宙の構造☆(2015)




28-2 マルチバース人間原理 [8] 


28-3 並行宇宙間の交信
重力波は次元を超えるので、超弦理論やM理論では、重力を通して他の宇宙と相互作用し得るとしている。 [1] [3]

28-4 観測
NASAのジェット推進研究所およびESAでは、2035年に、宇宙重力波望遠鏡(Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA):レーザー干渉計)を使って並行宇宙の重力を観測する予定だ。[8][9]

【参 考】
1.多元宇宙論 - Wikipedia 
2.Space.com/”5 Reasons We May Live in a Multiverse”20121207
5. Multi-production of universes by first-order phase transition of a vacuum
6. 宇宙の創成と未来 佐藤勝彦
7. 人間原理 - Wikipedia 
8. 宇宙重力波望遠鏡 - Wikipedia 
9.LISA Project Office

27 Entropic gravity/Emergent gravity #Gravity #universe

27 Entropic gravity/Emergent gravity #Gravity #universe

27-1 Outline
○Entropic gravity, also known as emergent gravity, is a theory in modern physics that describes gravity as an entropic force. [1]

○In 2009, Erik Verlinde disclosed a conceptual model that describes gravity as an entropic force. He argues (similar to Jacobson's result) that gravity is a consequence of the "information associated with the positions of material bodies". This model combines the thermodynamic approach to gravity with Gerard 't Hooft's holographic principle. It implies that gravity is not a fundamental interaction, but an emergent phenomenon which arises from the statistical behavior of microscopic degrees of freedom encoded on a holographic screen. [1]

○The theory holds that when gravity becomes vanishingly weak—levels seen only at interstellar distances—it diverges from its classically understood nature and its strength begins to decay linearly with distance from a mass. [1]

○From this theory it is not necessary to assume dark matter.

○The theory has been controversial within the physics community but has sparked research and experiments to test its validity. [1]

27-2 Thermodynamics and the Laws of Newton
・・・Based on the paper by Erik Verlinde in 2010 [2]

○Gravity is considerably harder to combine with quantum mechanics than all the other forces. Also string theory and its related developments have given several indications in this direction.

○The universality of gravity suggests that its emergence should be understood from
general principles that are independent of the specific details of the underlying microscopic theory.Changes in this entropy when matter is displaced leads to an entropic force, which as we will show takes the form of gravity. Its origin therefore lies in the tendency of the microscopic theory to maximize its entropy.

○The conceptual ideas behind the emergence of spacetime and gravity appear to be general and are in principle applicable to other geometries than Anti-de Sitter space:a universe closer to our own, namely de Sitter space.

○The first indication of the emergent nature of spacetime and gravity comes from the laws of black hole thermodynamics. A central role herein is played by the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and Hawking temperature given by

Here A denotes the area of the horizon and κ equals the surface acceleration.
○ In thermodynamics of ordinary materials, entropy is proportional to volume, but in black holes it is proportional to surface area.→Holographic principle

※The formula of Bekenstein-Hawking holds in any dimension of gravity theory, G is the Newton's constant in that dimension.

○Newton's law can be obtained from the law of thermodynamics as follows.
(1)Particle and Entropy
Motivated by Bekenstein's argument, as the particles of mass m approach a screen, the entropy change ΔS on the screen becomes,

where kB is Boltzman's constant.
※ Entropy :
1) In thermodynamics (an area of physics dealing with heat), entropy is a measure of "disorder" in the physical system of matter and energy.
2) Entropy is a measure of the number of possible arrangements the atoms in a system can have. In this sense, entropy is a measure of uncertainty or randomness.

When Δx approaches the Compton wavelength,

The main content of this equation is simply that there is an entropy change perpendicular to the screen proportional to the mass m and the displacement Δx.

Figure:A particle with mass approaches a part of the holographic screen.

※ Compton wavelength:It is a physical constant representing the mass of a particle as its length.

※ Compton wavelength of electrons: λe = 2.42 × 10 ^-12 m

(2)Entropic force
How does force arise?
Acceleration occurs when force is applied, which is observed as temperature and entropy.

FΔx = TΔS (first law of thermodynamics)

(3)Holographic principle
Now suppose our boundary (screen) forms a closed surface. More specically, let us assume it is a sphere. The number of bits(N) is proportional to the area.

Figure:A spherical holographic screen

A: Surface area of sphere 

c is the speed of light, ℏ is the Planck constant

※Holographic principle: The idea discovered in the field of superstring theory that information of a space can be regarded as being encoded on its boundary surface.
・For example, entropy of black hole is proportional to its surface area.
・Holographic principle is closely related to the fundamental nature of quantum theory called "quantum entanglement ".

(4)Energy and number of states (amount of information)
・Assume that there is a total energy E in this spherical holographic screen.
・Also, given the assumption that energy is equally divided into the number of states N (bits) within the boundary (law of equipartition of energy)

The energy E is proportional to the mass M when the mass M is sufficiently larger than m. 

T is absolute temperature.

※This fact could be true even when equipartition is not strictly obeyed.

Solving equations (1) to (4), we have recovered Newton's law of gravitation.

○The results of this paper suggest gravity arises as an entropic force, once space and time themselves have emerged.

○The equivalence principle of acceleration and gravity are both emergent phenomena.

○Furthermore, we can obtain the Einstein equation which generalizes Newton's law. [3]

○ Conclusion
・It is time we nally do away with gravity as a fundamental force. If gravity is emergent, so is space time geometry. Gravity arises as an entropic force, once space and time themselves have emerged.
・For instance, the way redshifts arise from entropy gradients could lead to many new insights.

1. Entropic gravity-Wikipedia 
2. Erik Verlinde “On the Origin of Gravity and the Laws of Newton“ 20100106
3. T. Jacobson, \Thermodynamics of space-time: The Einstein equation of state,"
Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1260 (1995)

【Change log】
20171111 Newly posted
20171209 Addition of “ Thermodynamics and the Laws of Newton”

27 エントロピック重力/創発的重力 #重力 #宇宙

27 エントロピック重力/創発的重力 #重力 #宇宙

27-1 概要
○エントロピック重力(Entropic gravity)または創発的重力(emergent gravity)は、現代物理学の理論であり、重力をエントロピックな力として記述する。[1]





27-2 熱力学とニュートンの法則 
・・・2010年のエリック・ヴァーリンデの論文を元に [4]








kB はボルツマン定数
1) 熱力学(熱を扱う物理学の一領域)では、エントロピーは物質とエネルギーの物理系における"無秩序"の尺度。
2) 対象とする系がとりうる状態の数がどのくらいあるかを表す物理量。





※電子のコンプトン波長: λe=2.42×10-12 m 


FΔx=T∆S (熱力学第1法則)

ここでスクリーンが球面とすると、ホログラフィック原理( holographic principle)により、スクリーン内の状態数(情報量:N)は面積に比例する。



c は光速、ℏ は Planck 定数

・ホログラフィック原理は 「量子もつれ(量子エンタングルメント)」という量子論の基本的な性質と深く関係している。



T は絶対温度



The results of this paper suggest gravity arises as an entropic force, once space and time themselves have emerged.



○結 論

【参 照】
2.“ダークマター存在せず? - 「エントロピック重力理論」と観測データが一致2-“荒井聡
at マイナビニュース 2016/12/22
3.Entropic gravity-Wikipedia 
4.Erik Verlinde “On the Origin of Gravity and the Laws of Newton(重力の起源とニュートンの法則)“ 20100106
5.T. Jacobson, \Thermodynamics of space-time: The Einstein equation of state,"
Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1260 (1995)

6.太田 信義“重力理論と熱力学”2010
7.百武慶文“重力は基本的な力か!? E. Verlindeの仕事の紹介”
8. Masahiro Hotta”エントロピック重力理論” at Quantum Universe 20161225

20171111 新規
20171209 「熱力学とニュートンの法則」の追加

26  Loop Quantum Gravity(LQG)  #Gravity #universe

26  Loop Quantum Gravity(LQG)  #Gravity #universe

My YouTube started!
Get younger in 7 days! #Antiaging #CerebralInfarction 

[Electromagnetic force + Weak interaction+Strong interaction + Gravity]
・LQG is an attempt to merge quantum mechanics and general relativity. [1]
・Quantum gravity (QG) is a field of theoretical physics that seeks to describe the force of gravity according to the principles of quantum mechanics.

26-1 Overview [1]
○In the loop models, the basic structure of space-time turns out to be discrete. In such discrete space-times, there are smallest values for volumes and areas that are not divisible any farther.
○The granular structure of space-time gets rid of the infinities that plague quantum field theory.
○Elementary particles for each type, the rotational speed takes the value of the discrete, as the basic number of Planck constant. For example, an electron rotates at half the speed of Planck constant. 

<Decide the direction of the space from the spin direction of the particle>
・In the 1950s, by utilizing this principles of the spin, "the Spin network" theory which defines the direction of each point in space from the direction of the electron spin published by Penrose.
・As a specific method, the theory represents a material at a point, and represents the direction at a line, and make a constant volume by planes perpendicular to the line.
・The predicted size of this structure is the Planck length, which is approximately 10-35 meters.
・Space can be viewed as an extremely fine fabric or network "woven" of finite loops. These networks of loops are called spin networks.
・This change in spin network indicates the presence of gravity and elementary particles.
・The granular structure of space-time that is implied by spin networks also gets rid of the infinities that plague quantum field theory. 

※Spin networks [2]

<Loop quantum gravity theory creates space, gravity and substance at a time>
・The evolution of a spin network over time is called a spin foam.
・Spin form changes discretely. 
• The time difference is 1 Planck seconds of the change (10-43 seconds), and the time that people feel is what this very short time is stacked.
・The main output of LQG is a physical picture of space where space is granular. It has the same nature as the granularity of the photons in the quantum theory of electromagnetism and the discrete levels of the energy of the atoms. 

26-2 Difference from super string theory
1)In string theory( a quantum theories of gravity) one generally starts with quantized excitations on top of a classically fixed background. LQG is thus described as background dependent. In contrast, LQG, like general relativity, is manifestly background independent. [1]
2)Super string theory requires that space-time have 10 dimensions; LQG is formulated in 4 dimensions. [3]
3)String theory also implies the existence of supersymmetry, in which all known particles have yet-undiscovered partners. Supersymmetry isn’t a feature of LQG. [1] [3]
4)In loop quantum gravity, there is no big bang singularity; instead, the universe´s history can be traced infinitely far into the past, step by step. [2]
※An inflationary expansion might have been driven by quantum-gravitational effects. [4]

26-3 Tasks 
○Quantum gravity effects are notoriously difficult to measure because the Planck length is so incredibly small. However recently physicists have started to consider the possibility of measuring quantum gravity effects. [5]
○The Universe can be used as a laboratory to test quantum gravity effects. First, there are accelerators in distant galaxies that produced gamma burst, 10 billion years ago, particles with energies much higher than we can produce in even the largest man-made accelerators, 10 million times higher. Secondly, due to the long times and vast distances involved, effects such as the difference in speeds of these particles (speed of light is energy dependent according to LQG) can be detected over these long distances and times. [4] [6]

○In 2015, the Advanced LIGO team announced that they had detected gravitational waves from a pair of black holes merging. [7] [8]

○We can not fully study science with something like a unified theory - Freeman Dyson explains the reason with Gödel's incompleteness theorems

1. Loop quantum gravity - Wikipedia
2. Loop quantum gravity — Einstein Online
3.String Theory Meets Loop Quantum Gravity | Quanta Magazine
4. Carol Rovelli“Loop quantum gravity”
5.Quantum gravity (QG) - Wikipedia
6.Duality of Spacetime and Matter - NCF.ca
7.Gravitational wave - Wikipedia
8.No.31 Gravitational Wave

【Change log】
20170421 Split into 3 items
20171030 Addition of Freeman-Dyson's words to tasks.

26 ループ量子重力理論 #重力 #宇宙

26 ループ量子重力理論 #重力 #宇宙

7日で若返りたい!#若返り #脳梗塞 


26-1 概要 [1][2]





26-2 超弦理論との相違

26-3 課題・今後の展開 
○空間の構造が離散的だとすると,そこを伝わる光のスピードは波長によってわずかに異なる。はるか遠くの宇宙で発生したガンマ線バーストの光が,波長によってわずかな時間差をもって地球に届くことが検出されれば,理論を実証できる。[5] [6]

○2015年 カリフォルニア工科大とマサチューセッツ工科大などの共同研究チームが重力波を初検出。 [7]


1. ループ量子重力理論 - Wikipedia 
2. 教えて!goo
3.Loop quantum gravity — Einstein Online
4.リー・スモーリン ”時空の原子を追うループ量子重力理論”
5.Carol Rovelli“Loop quantum gravity”
6.産経新聞 20160212
7.No. 29 重力波

20170421 3項目に分割 
20171030 今後の展開にフリーマン・ダイソンの言葉を追加。