# ２４　Standard theory(Standard model)【What is the Universe？】Dialogue with the Universe

２４　Standard theory(Standard model)【What is the Universe？】Dialogue with the Universe

・Weinberg-Salam theory and quantumchromodynamics are the foundation of elementary particle physics, and are called standard theory or standard model.
・Standard theory is one of the theory for describing the electromagnetic force, weak force, strong force.
・Particles of the standard model consists
Fermi particles(fermions) constituting a substance
Gauge particles that mediate the force
Higgs particles comprising the mass of the element.
・Force occurs at the catch of Bose particles (bosons).

※ Electromagnetic force, weak force ... Weinberg-Salam theory(WS theory) ,Electroweak unified theory (1967), Kobayashi-Maskawa theory (1973), etc.
※ Strong force ... Quantum chromodynamics, QCD late 1970s

・It is shown clearly that the dark matter occupies about 1/4 of the energy density of the universe. However, the particles which serve as a candidate of the dark matter do not exist in a standard model. Therefore, to ask elementary particle for the true character of the dark matter, extension of a standard model is required.

○ Standard model

※Generation: It is only say that lined the respective sets in light order of mass. Elementary particles of the second generation and later present at the time of creation of the universe, it is not present in the current global.
※The mass of the top quark is about 50 000 times the up quark. Weight of much gold atom.
※Bosons mediate force, and not follow the Pauli exclusion principle, and can be packed in the same place any number.
（Atoms are stuck in the electromagnetic force.）
（Electromagnetic force is transmitted by the particles exchange photons.）
※Pauli exclusion principle：The two Fermi particles can not occupy the same quantum state.
（The two Fermi particles, in limitations impose the uncertainty principle, both the position and velocity can not be the same.）
・・・If assuming that this world has been created without the exclusion principle, quark would not have shaped the separate clearly defined protons and neutrons. And, they would not also be shaping the atom. Substantially uniform density "soup" would be present.
※Strong interaction：Electromagnetic force: Weak interaction: Gravity
＝１：10 to the power of minus 2 ：10 to the power of minus 5：10 to the power of minus 40
※Fermion (material particles) and bosons (particles of force) is replaced by the quantum theoretic dimension.