80 Black Hole #BlackHole

80 Black Hole #Black Hole

80−1 Travel to black hole
○September 2011 Supermassive black holes •at about 54.4 million light-years away in the direction of Virgo announced.
○In the case of a star whose mass is more than about 30 times the sun, it becomes a black hole.
※If we confine the mass of the earth to 1 cm, we can create a black hole

○Black holes have extremely strong gravity, even light could inhale as well as
substances nearby.

○Incidentally it takes about 100,000 years for 20 light years by the ship cruising speed of the current, so we will need about 300 billion years till the black hole in space travel ! ! !

(Reference) [2]
・ The theoretically expected cosmic jet that equivalents to the movement of the substance, and the X-rays emitted from the substance inhaled by the black holes are observed.
・ The white hole solution to which time reflection of the black hole is carried out exists in the solution of the Einstein equation.
 ・The information inhaled by the black hole is not lost.


80−2 Evaporation of Black hole:Hawking Radiation
1974 Stephen William Hawking
・One of the characteristics of the quantum theory is that there is no empty space thing.
・This may look empty at first glance, in a micro scale pair production of virtual particles of negative energy and positive energy always has been done.(Quantum fluctuation)

・Well, in just outside the area of the event horizon, positive-energy particles can escape from the black hole if energy is greater.
・On the other hand, negative energy particles are sucked into the black hole.

※event horizon:In the inner side than the event horizon, since the speed required to escape from the black hole is greater than the light speed, it is impossible to escape from there even light .

• Since the negative energy particles are inhaled, the energy of the black hole is reduced as a result, the black hole becomes smaller gradually.
・Black hole is going to "evaporation".
・Thee is a theory that final process of this evaporation is observed as a gamma-ray burst.
・At the time of the black hole evaporation is newly made protons and neutrons.
・And temperature at this time, also reached T = 10^32.

※Temperature of black hole:T
(k:the Boltzmann constant, M:the mass of the black hole)

○In general relativity (classical theory), even though light can not escape from the black holes, this evaporation is caused by the quantum effect.

○However, the time to partition evaporation is 10^145 years, that is orders of magnitude longer than the age of the universe about 10^10 years. On the other hand, the mass of the black hole formed by the accelerator is considered to be around 10 ^ -27 [kg], and the evaporation time is 10 ^ -97 [sec]. [3]

○At present, it is not known sure thing about this process.

○There is a theory that through the mechanism of Hawking radiation, it is possible to recover the energy of the black hole. [4] [5] [6]

1. Yahoo! Japan News
2. Black hole - Wikipedia
3. http://web.cc.yamaguchi-u.ac.jp/~u003wa/inde_file/paper.pdf
4. The mystery of the black hole Scientific Seminar of the Physical Society of Japan 2004
Text "Einstein and physics in the 21st century"(August 5-6, 2004)
High Energy Accelerator Research Organization Makoto.Natsuume
5. A Universe from Nothing. Lawrence M. Krauss -2012
6. Star Lifting - Wikipedia

【Change log】
20170307 Integration of Black Hole and Evaporation of Black hole
20171125 Correction of evaporation time