30 Quantum entanglement #gravity #universe #QuantumTheory #SuperStringTheory 

30 Quantum entanglement #gravity #universe #QuantumTheory #SuperStringTheory 

○Quantum entanglement
When we look at particles, we usually say that each particle has its own quantum state like spin. Sometimes, two particles can act on one another and become an entangled system. When a pair or group of particles can only be described by the quantum state for the system, and not by individual quantum states, we say the particles are "entangled".
Quantum entanglement – Simple English Wikipedia
• Quantum entanglement occurs in a moment. Also, there are no particles that mediate action.
• The pair of quantum entanglements is called an EPR pair (EPR: Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen), and it is a quantum 1 bit (unit of quantum entanglement).
※Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen were the first to point out this mysterious fact.

• There are three main fields related to quantum entanglement, quantum information theory, quantum field theory and gravity theory.
• Applications of quantum entanglement include quantum computer, quantum teleportation, and quantum cryptography.

○Spacetime itself could emerge from the entanglement.
• There is an idea that quantum entanglement stores energy. Because energy is equivalent to mass, quantum entanglement may have mass

○There is also the idea that the universe is created from quantum entanglement.
: The smallest unit of space-time is quantum entanglement of 1 bit, the one that countlessly gathered is the universe.

1. Jennifer Lin, Matilde Marcolli, Hirosi Ooguri, and Bogdan Stoica“Locality of Gravitational Systems from Entanglement of Conformal Field Theories” at Phys. Rev. Lett. 20150602
2. “How spacetime is built by quantum entanglement” University of Tokyo 20150527, 

【Change log】
20170113 New Post

30 量子もつれ? #重力 #宇宙 #量子論 #超弦理論

30 量子もつれ? #重力 #宇宙 #量子論 #超弦理論

量子もつれ(量子エンタングルメントquantum entanglement)




【参 照】
1. SANAE AKIYAMA”量子もつれには「質量」があるのか?”at WIRED 20150705
2. 量子もつれが時空を形成する仕組みを解明~重力を含む究極の統一理論への新しい視点~-大栗博司20150602

【履 歴】
20170113 新規

29 Gravitational Wave #Gravity #universe

29 Gravitational Wave #Gravity #universe

YouTube 】Get younger with Carbonated Water? #AntiAging #CarbonatedWater
I believe that there is a slight resilience in the brain, I aim to overcome cerebral infarction in 7 days.
First from carbonated water, with "Gooda! Formula rejuvenation check method".

29-1 What are Gravitational Waves?[1] [2]
○ Gravitational waves are ripples of spacetime that propagate at the speed of light.
○Albert Einstein predicted the existence of gravitational waves in 1916 in his general theory of relativity. 
○On February 11, 2016, the LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration teams announced that they had made the first observation of gravitational waves, originating from a pair of merging black holes using the Advanced LIGO detectors. On June 15, 2016, a second detection of gravitational waves from coalescing black holes was announced. [3] [4]

※Gravitational wave generated from collision of two black holes (part 1) (Credit: LIGO)[5]

※Gravitational wave generated from collision of two black holes (part 2) (ILLUSTRATION BY C. HENZE, NASA)

○Expected gravity wave source:supernova explosion, binary system of neutron star • black hole, atomic gravity wave [1]
※ Frequency of detection of gravity wave from coalescence of neutron binary stars:40 events / year [1]
※ Frequency of gravitational wave detection from coalescing of binary of black holes: 0.4 ~ 1,000 events / year [6]

○ Gravity is very weak compared to electromagnetic force:10 ^ -40times [7]
○Wavelength of gravitational wave:1.5 × 10 ^ 7 m (Earth diameter:1.27 × 10 ^ 7 m) or more
○"Gravitational waves go through everything. They are hardly affected by what they pass through, and that means that they are perfect messengers," said Prof Bernard Schutz, from Cardiff University, UK. [3]

○In the framework of quantum field theory, the graviton is the name given to a hypothetical elementary particle speculated to be the force carrier that mediates gravity. However the graviton is not yet proven to exist and no reconciliation yet exists between general relativity which describes gravity, and the Standard Model which describes all other fundamental forces.
※In the closed string, the state with the lowest energy is gravity.

29-2 What can we know and what is possible by the gravitational wave?
1)Direct observation of black holes
2)Construction of quantum gravity theory, the integration of general relativity and quantum theory (construction of theory to integrate the four forces of the universe)
3)Direct observation of the big ban and the earlier of the universe
4)Communication in the universe or between the parallel universe 

29-2-1 Direct observation of black holes 
○Nothing can escape from a black hole, so it is impossible to see one directly. (Quantum field theory does predict that black holes give off an extremely tiny amount of thermal radiation, but it's so little that it we can't detect it from Earth.)
○Measurement of the waveform and amplitude of the gravitational waves from a black hole merger event makes possible accurate determination of its distance. [8]
○The accumulation of black hole merger data from cosmologically distant events may help to create more precise models of the history of the expansion of the universe and the nature of the dark energy that influences it. [8]

29-2-2 Construction of quantum gravity theory, the integration of general relativity and quantum theory
○One of the difficulties of quantum gravity is that quantum gravitational effects are only expected to become apparent near the Planck scale, a scale far smaller in distance (equivalently, far larger in energy) than what is currently accessible at high energy particle accelerators. [9]
○A quantum gravity theory is required in order to understand problems involving the combination of very high energy and very small dimensions of space, such as the behavior of black holes, and the origin of the universe. [9]

29-2-3 Direct observation of the big ban and the earlier of the universe
○What is currently observable is only the surface of the big bang.
○If we observe primordial gravitational waves, the inside of the big bang can be seen. Their detection exclude different models of inflation. Their detection exclude different models of inflation.

※The universe expanded approximately 10 ^ 30 times in the inflation era. In addition, since the transition to Friedman space-time, The universe inflated about 10 ^ 60 times together. Therefore, information of the initial Planck scale has not been disturbed by the Big Bang which come after inflation.

29-2-4 Communication in the universe or between the parallel universe
○Because graviton travels through the extra dimensions, communication of between parallel universes of using the gravitational waves can be expected. [10] [11]

29-3 Observation of gravitational waves
29-3-1 LIGO(Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory)
LIGO is one side of the 4km michelson laser interferometer.
LIGO succeeded in direct observation of gravitational waves in 2015. [3] [4] Gravitational waves are a prediction of the Theory of General Relativity.

LIGO [5]

LIGO’s passive damping system holds the all-important mirrors perfectly still through a 4-stage pendulum called a "quad". [12]

29-3-2 eLISA(Evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna)[13]
○The eLISA concept has a constellation of three spacecraft, arranged in an equilateral triangle with 1 million-kilometre arms as a ESA(European Space Agency) mission.
○LISA is good at gravitational wave detection at low frequencies than LIGO and VIRGO.
○A tentative launch date is 2034.

1. Gravitational wave - Wikipedia
2. LIGO”What are Gravitational Waves?”
3. Pallab Ghosh Science correspondent, BBC News “Einstein's gravitational waves 'seen' from black holes”
4. Maddie Stone”Scientists Have Detected Gravitational Waves Again” 2016
5. Calla Cofield”Gravitational Wave Detector Finds Double Colliding Black Holes — Again (Woot!)”at SPACE.com 20160615
6 .Thomas W. Baumgarte and Stuart L. Shapiro”Binary black hole mergers”at feature article
7. “What force in the universe is the strongest or the most powerful?”at physlink.com
8.First observation of gravitational waves - Wikipedia
9. Quantum gravity (QG) - Wikipedia
10. No.28 The Parallel Universe
11. No.97 Communication with the alien
12. LIGOLIGO Technology”
13. Evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna - Wikipedia

29 重力波 #重力 #宇宙

29 重力波 #重力 #宇宙

YouTube 】炭酸水で若返る!? #若返り #炭酸 

29-1 重力波とは [1]
重力波( gravitational wave)は、時空のゆがみが波動として光速で伝播する現象。巨大質量をもつ天体が光速に近い速度で運動するときに強く発生する。
○2016年2月にLIGOとVirgoのチームは2つのブラックホールの衝突から重力波の最初の直接検出に成功した。また、2016年6月に2度目の検出に成功した。[2] [3]

※2つのブラックホールの衝突から発生する重力波(その1)(Credit: LIGO)[3]

※2つのブラックホールの衝突から発生する重力波(その2)(ILLUSTRATION BY C. HENZE, NASA) [2]

○期待される重力波源:超新星爆発中性子星ブラックホールの連星系、原子重力波 [4]
中性子連星の合体からの重力波の検出頻度:10回/年 [5]
ブラックホールの連星の合体からの重力波の検出頻度:0.4~1,000回/年 [5]

○重力は電磁気力に比べて非常に弱い:10^-36倍 [4]


29-2 重力波により何が分かり、何が可能になるのか?

29-2-1 ブラックホールの直接的観測 [2] [3] [7]

29-2-2 量子重力理論の構築、一般相対性理論量子論の統合(宇宙の4つの力を統合する理論の構築)
ブラックホールのように重力が極大な場所を研究できると、量子力学に重力を組み込む量子重力理論の構築が可能になるかもしれない。[2] [7] [8]

29-2-3 ビッグバンやビッグバン以前の宇宙の直接観測[2] 


29-2-4 宇宙や並行宇宙間の交信
重力子余剰次元を伝わるため、重力波を使っての並行宇宙同士の交信が期待できる。[7] [8]

29-3 重力波の観測
29-3-1 LIGO(ライゴLaser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory)
○2015年に重力波の直接観測に成功した。[2] [3] これにより一般相対性理論が完全に証明された。

LIGO [10]


29-3-2 宇宙重力波望遠鏡:eLISA(Evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna)[12]
○3台の衛星で、一辺が100万kmのレーザー干渉計を形成するもので、ESA( European Space Agency)によって進められている。

【参 考】
1. 重力波 - Wikipedia 
2. Nadia Drake/訳=三枝小夜子“重力波、世紀の発見をもたらした壮大な物語” at NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC 日本版 20160212
3. Michael Greshko/訳=三枝小夜子” 2度目の重力波観測、天文学はいよいよ新時代へ”at NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC 日本版 20160617
4. 大原謙一”重力波天文学“ 201404
6. 江口 徹“理論で「ひも」解く宇宙”at 東京大学理学部大学院HP
7.No.28 並行宇宙
8. 量子重力理論 - Wikipedia 
9. No.97 宇宙人との交信
10. Robert Naeye”Gravitational Wave Detection Heralds New Era”at SKY & TELESCOPE 2016
11. LIGOLIGO Technology”
12. 宇宙重力波望遠鏡 - Wikipedia 


【New Song】VISIBLE 【Guest: The Snowman】 Songwriting Studio Gooda! #Snowman #NewSong #VISIBLE

【New Song】VISIBLE 【Guest: The Snowman】 Songwriting Studio Gooda! #Snowman #NewSong #VISIBLE
Everything returns to the universe.
Truth, love and happiness will become more visible as you approach the edge of death.
There is something which disappears when it is exposed to flames of passion.
You Tubehttps://youtu.be/Trk_bGf5CqY

【新曲】【New Song】VISIBLE 【ゲスト:雪だるま】【Guest: The Snowman】 Songwriting Studio Gooda! #雪だるま #Snowman

【新曲】VISIBLE 【ゲスト:雪だるま】 Songwriting Studio Gooda! #雪だるま #新曲 #見える

【新曲】VISIBLE 【ゲスト:雪だるま】 Songwriting Studio Gooda! #雪だるま #新曲 #見える
There is something which disappears when it is exposed to flames of passion
You Tubehttps://youtu.be/Trk_bGf5CqY

【新曲】【New Song】VISIBLE 【ゲスト:雪だるま】【Guest: The Snowman】 Songwriting Studio Gooda! #雪だるま #Snowman

【新曲】VISIBLE 【ゲスト:雪だるま】 Songwriting Studio Gooda! #雪だるま #新曲 #見える

【新曲】VISIBLE 【ゲスト:雪だるま】 Songwriting Studio Gooda! #雪だるま #新曲 #見える
There is something which disappears when it is exposed to flames of passion
You Tubehttps://youtu.be/Trk_bGf5CqY

【新曲】【New Song】VISIBLE 【ゲスト:雪だるま】【Guest: The Snowman】 Songwriting Studio Gooda! #雪だるま #Snowman